Raw Material Collection
Different types of material used in carpet like Wool, Viscose, Nylon, Polyester, Bamboo Silk, Tencel Silk, Pure Silk etc. Raw Material is either imported or is bought from nearby markets and is carefully sorted to pick out unwanted particles. Some of natural fiber like wool, silk often carries dust, grease which is removed by washing it thoroughly and is then sun dried for two-three days.
It is the process of washing of fiber. If fiber has lot of dust, dirt and the sticky oily material called Suint (in case of wool). Suint is the wax like material which comes out from sweat glands of Sheep. The fiber has to be washed with caustic to remove suint.
Spinning involves two steps Carding and Spinning- Carding is sometimes done by hand with help of carding brush or on carding rollers run by hand. The carded wool is spun into yarn by using a charkha or a spinning wheel. The thickness of the yarn depends on the quality of the carpet and generally a 3-5 ply yarn is used.
Color & Size Selection
Shade Selection and carpet size is determined before start weaving.
The traditional pot dyeing method has been largely replaced by machine dyeing in closed Chambers. Dyes containing harmful substances such as AZO are banned and dye-stuffs from renowned international manufacturers are used. These dyes have a high degree of fastness. Depending on the weather, the dyed yarn has to be dried in the sunlight for one to three days. Pot dyeing and vegetable (natural) dyeing are still being used by some manufacturers.
Yarn Opening Or Reeling
This is a process that involves opening the bigger and loose lea and wrapping it into tightly wrapped bunch which is smaller in size.
When speaking about patterns and carpet manufacturing these are often divided into three categories; curvilinear, geometric and figural patterns. There are many frequent named patterns, we will mention a few of the most common ones. These patterns can decorate a small part of a carpet or be used in an overall motif. From the pattern on a carpet it is possible to see what style and also which origin the carpet has. The size and colors that are used also contributes to the answer of the carpets origin. The pattern is the most obvious and perhaps the most important characteristic in a carpet. Around the cities and in the workshops, much time is emphasized on developing and refining the old traditional patterns which are all first drawn by hand on paper.
After Material, color, size selection, yarn dyeing, design preparation & finalization actual carpet weaving starts and skilled artisan start playing magic on the canvas.
It is done as the first wash to clean the carpet and for removal of dust and dirt or any stains on the carpet.
After carpet is washed the piles are cut to level them to same height. This is called Shearing.
Embossing (If Required)
This is the process of cutting the borders of the motif on the carpet which gives detailing to the motif. It is also done by decreasing the pile height of the piles other than that of motif. This way the motif seems to like protrude out of the background and gives a good look to the carpet. The embossed motif is sometimes of different fibers also.
The sides of the carpet is bound by a separate thread which is a thick thread and often doubled. This gives additional strength to the carpet.
It is the process of burning the protruding fibers on the backside of the carpets. This gives a sharp and neat finish to the carpet.
The carpet is washed for the final time. Final washing provides it the required luster.
In traditional setup dyeing is done under the sun, but many manufacturers have drying machine which can control the temperature and moisture of the carpet.
Stretching is done to make the sides straight otherwise the carpet has some curved edges.
This is the finishing step in the manufacturing of carpet. The clipping is done with minute detailing.
Quality Check, Packaging & Bailing
After the carpet is finished, it is packed and bailed for exports/supply.